Dr. Zarema SHAUKENOVA
Director of the Kazakhstan Institute of Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan
An important direction of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy is strengthening ties with Turkic-speaking countries. In this regard, the promotion of the idea of Turkic solidarity by the government and the creation of a fully-fledged organization for cooperation between the countries of the Turkic world was natural. The initiative to establish the Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States (CCTS, or the Turkic Council) was first put forward by the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Elbasy Nursultan Nazarbayev, who was at the origins of the organization’s formation and development, back in 2009. By the decision of the Heads of State of the Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States, in 2018, the Kazakh leader was awarded the lifelong status of Honorary Chairman of the Turkic Council in recognition of his significant contribution to the development of the Turkic countries.1
It should be noted that the establishment of a CCTS dialogue platform was preceded by the Forum of Heads of Turkic-Speaking States with the participation of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Turkey and Uzbekistan, held from 1992 to 2010. This Forum laid the foundations for the institutionalization of Turkic integration, and served as the impetus for the creation of the organization of the Turkic Council.2
As Kazakh leader Nursultan Nazarbayev stressed on the sidelines of the 9th Summit of Heads of Turkic-Speaking States in October 2009 in Azerbaijan, “We need an effective mechanism for making and implementing our joint decisions. In this regard, the Kazakh side proposes to create a body that would have all the required attributes of a political regional association, with a certain legal and organizational status.”3
As is commonly known, the agreement to establish the CCTS was signed in Nakhchivan on October 3, 2009, at the 9th Summit of the Heads of Turkic-Speaking States, by four Turkic-speaking countries: Turkey, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan.
Today, the Turkic Council is an authoritative, fully-fledged international organization with established institutions and structure. The Council of State Heads, the Council of Foreign Ministers, the Committee of Senior Officials and the Council of Elders of Turkic-Speaking States have been established and function under the auspices of the CCTS and hold meetings on an annual basis.
Within the Central Body of the CCTS, that is the Council of State Heads (CSH), regular meetings are held to discuss issues of cooperation in resolving major international problems and priorities of interaction between countries, and to review the activities of the organization.
It is within the exclusive competence of the Council of Foreign Ministers (CFM) mainly to supervise the current activities of the Turkic association and to define the most important issues on the international agenda for discussion at the meetings of the CSH. CFM meetings are usually held on the eve of the CSH meetings.
The Committee of Senior Officials (often simply called the Committee) includes at least one representative from each state of the CCTS; it coordinates the work and approves the draft documents of the Secretariat. Committee meetings are held before meetings of the Council of Foreign Ministers.
The Council of Elders of the Turkic-Speaking States is a consultative and advisory institution functioning on a permanent basis.
In addition, the main executive body, the Secretariat, headed by the Secretary- General and acting on a permanent basis, plays an important role in ensuring the work of the organization. The work of the central advisory and coordination institution focuses on the implementation of administrative and organizational measures for the meetings of the CSH, CFM and the Committee, and other events of the association, the development of draft documents and the dissemination of information. Furthermore, the Secretariat has an international legal capacity and is authorized to conclude agreements under the consent of all countries of the association.
The key format of political cooperation within the framework of the Cooperation Council of the Turkic Speaking States remains the annual Summits at the level of Heads of State, where topical issues are discussed and important decisions are made in all areas of cooperation between the countries. The final declarations of the Summits reflect the common views of the participants on the main issues of the international agenda. In total, six CCTS Summits have been held from 2011 to 2018.
Chaired by the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, the Summit of the CCTS on the “Economic Cooperation of Turkic-Speaking Countries” was held on October 21, 2011 in Almaty with the participation of the Heads of State of Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan, and the Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey. The forum participants discussed the prospects of cooperation in investment, trade, economics, and cultural and humanitarian spheres.5
As noted in the Almaty Declaration, the final document of the summit, “the first Summit of the Turkic Council held in Almaty marks a new era in the development of bilateral and multilateral relations and cooperation between the Turkic-speaking states.” The Rules of Procedure of the Secretariat of the Turkic Council were alsosigned at the Summit.
The second CCTS Summit on “Cooperation in Cultural and Humanitarian field” was held on August 23, 2012 in Kyrgyzstan represented by Almazbek Atambayev with the participation of the Presidents of Kazakhstan and Turkey and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan.6 The main result of the forum was the signing of the Bishkek Declaration, the Agreement on the Financial Rules of the Secretariat of the Turkic Council, the Agreement on Establishment of the International Turkic Academy, and the Agreement on the Establishment of the Turkic Culture and Heritage Foundation.
The third CCTS Summit on “Cooperation in the Field of Transport and Communications” was held on August 16, 2013 in Azerbaijan and was attended by the Heads of State of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Kyrgyzstan.7 The joint Gabala Declaration, as well as the Decision of the Heads of Member States on the extension of the term of office of the Secretary-General of the Turkic Council Halil Akıncı for 1 year were signed following the results of the CCTS.
The fourth CCTS Summit on “Cooperation in Tourism” was held on June 5, 2014 in Turkey with the participation of the leaders of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey and Turkmenistan.8 In his speech, President Nazarbayev drew attention to the effectiveness of the international organization, and the need to strengthen the overall economic potential of the Turkic States, specifically the implementation of transport opportunities and the modernization of tourism infrastructure.
Noting the importance of the Turkic Academy, Nazarbayev proposed to instruct the Turkological research center to create a program of identifying ways of integrating the Turkic States.
The Bodrum Declaration and the Decision of the Heads of Member States “on the Appointment of a New Secretary-General of the Turkic Council and his Two Deputies” were signed following the meeting.
The fifth, “anniversary” CCTS Summit on “Cooperation in the Field of Information” was held on September 11, 2015 at Nur-Sultan with the participation of the Presidents of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Kyrgyzstan, the speaker of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, and the Deputy Prime Minister of the government of Turkmenistan.9 At this Summit, President Nazarbayev stressed the importance of early adoption of the concept of Turkic World integration, noting the compliance of the prospective TC observer status in the UN and OIC with the interests of the Turkic States.
Nazarbayev focused on the global issues on the agenda, including the importance of ensuring peace and stability in Syria, Libya and Iraq, the settlement of the conflict between Palestine and Israel, the peaceful reconstruction of Afghanistan, and joint efforts to neutralize terrorist, extremist and separatist threats. He also stressed the need to increase the transit and transport capabilities of the organization’s countries and noted the relevance of the issue of creating a multimodal Eurasian transcontinental transport corridor.
During the Summit, Nazarbayev made a number of proposals on deepening cooperation among the Turkic countries, including the establishment of a Common Fund of Turkic Integration, the establishment of a credible center for the implementation of a cultural and informational development strategy for the Turkic World, the intergration of textbooks on the history of the Turkic peoples until the fifteenth century in the school curriculum of the Turkic states, and the publication of scientific work on Turkic cultural heritage, i.e. the “Heritage of Ancestors.”
The Astana Declaration and the Decision on the appointment of the Deputy Secretary- General of the Turkic Council and the President of the Turkic Culture and Heritage Foundation were signed within the framework of the event.
The sixth CCTS Summit on “Cooperation in the field of National Sports and Youth” was held on September 3, 2018 in Kyrgyzstan with the participation of the Head of State of Uzbekistan and the Prime Minister of Hungary. In his speech, President Nazarbayev paid special attention to the importance of preserving national culture and traditions for future generations in modern conditions, proposing to hold a Turkic Council Young Leaders Forum, scientific conferences and seminars, and to organize expeditions to the unique historical places of the Turkic world. These proposals aimed to deepen the knowledge of young people about the cultural features of the Turkic-speaking states on a regular basis.
Nazarbayev noted the achievements of Kazakhstan’s chairmanship in the CCTS, including the integration of the textbook “General History of the Turks” in the school curriculum of Azerbaijan, Turkey, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, the publication by the Turkic Academy of more than 90 books on history, the launch of the “Atalar Mirasi” portal (“Heritage of Ancestors”), the sociological research project “TurkBarometer,” and the “Modern Great Silk Road” tourist project. In addition, Nazarbayev put forward an initiative to develop special projects under the auspices of the Turkic Council, including “100 People of the Turkic World” and the “Holy Land of the Turkic World.”
As a result of the event, such documents as the Declaration of the 6th CCTS summit, the decision on the appointment of the Secretary-General of the CCTS and his Deputy, and the decision to grant Hungary an observer status in the CCTS were signed. The Concept of Turkic Speaking States Integration, the Joint Statement of Heads of States of CCTS on Cooperation Development in the field of National Sports and Youth Policy, and the Joint Statement of Heads of States of CCTS on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of Chingiz Aitmatov were adopted during the summit.10
The seventh CCTS Summit on “Small and Medium-Sized Business Development”is scheduled to be held in October 2019 in Azerbaijan.
Undoubtedly, the effective work within the framework of the Summits has had a positive impact on the strengthening of mutually-beneficial comprehensive relationsbetween the countries within the Turkic integration association, and contributed to strengthening the authority of the international organization in the world arena. At the same time, meetings of the Council of Foreign Ministers and the Committee of Senior Officials, as well as regular security consultations and election observation missions serve to strengthen the political dialogue of the countries of the CCTS
Cooperation in trade and economics, including the fields of industry and agriculture and based on the principles of equality and mutual benefit, remains a priority for the Turkic countries.12 As far back as the first CCTS Summit, the members of the organization identified the key direction of economic cooperation, “ensuring the free movement of goods, money, services and technologies.” Thus, since 2015, the total trade turnover between the member states of the CCTS has increased by 22%, amounting to almost 9 billion USD. If Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan join the organization, which is being negotiated, the volume of trade between the countries of the Turkic Council shall be about 16 billion USD. 13 Memorandums of Understanding were signed between the member states of the organization, including those on improving the investment climate and investment statistics, as well as the development of small and medium-sized businesses. In this regard, it should be noted that the meetings of Ministers and working groups are contributing to the strengthening of trade and economic cooperation between the countries. Four CCTS working groups have been established to strengthen the dialogue of the states in the field of economic diversification, improvement of the investment climate and development of entrepreneurship. A total of 8 ministerial meetings and 10 working group meetings have been held since 2009.
The First CCTS Summit Declaration (The Almaty Declaration) as of October 21, 201114 established a Business Council, which includes representatives of the business communities of the member states. The activity of the Council is designed to “strengthen productive interaction between the business communities of the Turkic speaking States.” Since the establishment of the Turkic Council, six meetings of the Business Council and four business forums have been held with the participation of more than 500 entrepreneurs. 15 At the same time, following the initiative of President Nazarbayev, the Turkic Chamber of Commerce and Industry was established, the founding document of which was signed at the scheduled meeting of the Turkic Business Council in 2019. The organization’s activities shall be aimed at improving regional development. 16 As Prime Minister of Kazakhstan Askar Mamin noted at the event, “the establishment of the Turkic Chamber of Commerce and Industry shall give a new serious impetus to the development of mutually beneficial cooperation between the business communities of the countries.”
Cultural and Humanitarian Cooperation
The rapprochement of related Turkic-speaking countries has recently been clearly seen in the intensification of traditional cultural and humanitarian ties between the countries of the Turkic Council. This is facilitated by successfully operating the affiliated structures of the CCTS, including TURKSOY, the Turkic Academy, and the Turkic Culture and Heritage Foundation. The International Organization of Turkic Culture (TURKSOY) was established in 1993 on the basis of an agreement between the Ministers of Culture of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Turkey. To date, eight states, including Altai, Bashkortostan, Moldova, Khakassia, Northern Cyprus, Sakha, Tatarstan and Tuva are observers to the organization. The organization’s activities are aimed at “strengthening the brotherhood and friendship between the Turkic peoples, and spreading the common Turkic culture and preserving it for future generations.” As noted by UNESCO Director-General Irina Bokova, “this organization is central to all our cultural activities. The work we do together with TURKSOY aims at the preservation of our cultural values and their transmission to future generations.”17 Currently, the work of TURKSOY is focused on the protection of the cultural heritage of the Turkic world countries, including the preservation and restoration of historical and cultural monuments, as well as the study of the traditions, customs and folklore of the countries. The next significant organization is the Turkic-Speaking States Parliamentary Assembly (TURKPA), which was founded on the initiative of President Nazarbayev and on the basis of an Agreement between the Heads of Parliaments of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey in 2008.18 The activities of TURKPA, including the plenary sessions held within the framework of the organization, contribute to the successful development of inter-parliamentary relations between the states of the Turkic Council. The Assembly consists of four standing commissions, including the Commission on Legal Issues and International Relations, the Commission on Social, Cultural and Humanitarian Issues, the Commission on Economic Cooperation, and the Commission on Environment issues. Plenary sessions serve as the main format of meetings within the Parliamentary Assembly. A total of eight meetings were held from 2009 to 2018. The capital of Kazakhstan hosted the second and sixth plenary sessions of the Parliamentary Assembly in 2011 and 2015. The chairmen of the standing committees were elected at the 4th plenary session. The Astana Declaration was adopted as a result of the 6th plenary session of the Parliamentary Assembly. Representatives of the Parliament of Kazakhstan, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Hungary and Uzbekistan took part in the eighth plenary session of TURKPA on November 21, 2018 in Izmir, Turkey, under the leadership of the Chairman of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Binali Yildirim. In his speech, the Chairman of the Majilis of the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nurlan Nigmatulin noted that the CCTS Assembly went through the long way of development, also stressing that the strengthening of cooperation ties, and each implemented project lay the foundation for future projects.19 The International Turkic Academy was established in 2010. The initiative to create a special scientific center for the study of the Turkic world was first put forward by President Nazarbayev at the 9th Summit of Heads of Turkic-Speaking States in 2009. The agreement on granting the Turkic Academy an international status was signed by the Heads of State of Kazakhstan, Turkey and Kyrgyzstan and the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan in 2012. The activities of the international scientific organization are mainly focused on “coordinating and promoting scientific research about the history of the Turkic world, ranging from ancient times to the present, studying the Turkic language and literature, culture, and exploring the common Turkic world on the base of the discovery of unique sources and identifying the role and place of Turkic States in world.”20 In addition to conducting scientific activities held on a regular basis, the number of which has reached more than 80, including the “Great Steppe” International Humanitarian Forum, the Academy publishes the Altaistics and Turkology journal, as well as Global-Turk scientific and analytical magazine. The book fund of the Academy has more than 50,000 books on turkology, and the Museum of the organization includes more than 240 exhibits. The research center developed secondary school textbooks – “General Turkic History” and is working on draft textbooks of “General Turkic Literature” and “General Turkic Geography” up to the 15th century.21 As noted by Kairat Abdrakhmanov, former Minister of Foreign Affairs and presently the Ambassador of Kazakhstan to Sweden, “in a short period the Academy has done a great job, made a significant contribution to the development of cultural-historical and scientific-research cooperation between the member states of the Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States - Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey. The Academy has transformed into an intellectual organization.” On the initiative of the President of Azerbaijan, the Turkic Culture and Heritage Foundation was established in 2012. According to the Charter, the international organization “shall protect, explore and develop Turkic culture and heritage through the financing of events, projects and programs.”22 Since its creation, the Foundation has helped to organize and has participated in a number of events of the international scope, conferences, exhibitions and forums aimed at preserving culture and strengthening unity among the peoples of the Turkic world. Thus, in June 2018, with the assistance of the Foundation and on the initiative of the Turkic Academy, a conference on “The Turkic World: Identity and Enlightenment” was held in Paris. The growing authority of the Foundation is evidenced through the signing of Memorandums of Understanding with a number of international organizations and national institutions.23 Joint training programs for young diplomats and meetings between foreign policy research centres also serve to strengthen the countries’ cultural dialogue.
The issue of diasporas is an integral part of the dialogue between the Turkicspeaking states. The Turkic Council plays an important role in supporting relations between diasporas, and ensuring the interaction of the relevant structures of the Turkic-speaking countries.Three meetings of heads of institutions in charge of diaspora affairs and five meetings of the contact group working with diaspora issues have been held under CCTS auspices, where experts from the relevant institutions of the member states were represented. 24 The key document regulating the cooperation of countries on diaspora issues is the “General Strategy of the Activities of the Turkic Council of Turkic-Speaking Diaspora,” approved by the relevant Ministers and heads of departments in 2013. The strategy outlines the priorities and goals of the Turkic diasporas, and presents an assessment of the further action plan. In November 2018, at the third meeting of heads of institutions in charge of diaspora affairs in Turkey, the strategic document was signed by the parties and put into effect. A Joint Action Plan for its implementation in 2019 was also adopted.25 Different forums are held in order to consolidate the efforts of organizations to support diasporas, as well as well as to strengthen ties between the diasporas of Turkicspeaking states. The First Diaspora Forum of the member states of the Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States was held in 2013 in Baku; it was attended by more than 600 representatives from more than 50 countries, including heads of state structures and organizations of diasporas. For the first time, this historic event brought together at one table representatives of the organizations of Turkic-speaking diasporas from other countries and the diasporas institutions of the member states. The Second Diaspora Forum is expected to be held in November 2019 in Turkey with the participation of about 1,000 representatives of Turkic-speaking diasporas from the United States, Europe and other regions of the world.26 It is noteworthy that the the First Turkic Council Regional Diaspora Center was opened in Ukraine in 2014.27 The regional structures of the diaspora are designed to strengthen the authority of Turkic countries on the world stage, promote cultural values, and raise awareness of the problems of the Turkic world countries among the international community. The institutional strengthening and expansion of the international organization’s sphere of activities provide additional impetus to the multilateral cooperation of countries within the Turkic Council. In this regard, the granting of observer status to Hungary in 2018 seems promising. Similarly, the potential accession of Uzbekistan to the organization would open new opportunities for cooperation. Back in September 2018, at the 6th Forum of the CCTS Heads, the President of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev expressed his country’s intention to become a member of the Turkic association: “We are happy and ready to join this organization. We offer the Uzbek city of Khiva as the capital of the Turkic Council,” said the leader of the country. 28 Thus, united by common history, language, traditions, and similar interests, the Turkicspeaking states have successfully institutionalized their interactions in all areas of cooperation in the format of an international organization. The dialogue platform within the Turkic Council has proven to be an effective mechanism for promoting the interests and priorities of the Turkic-speaking states in the field of politics, trade, economics, and cultural and educational cooperation at the multilateral level, both in Eurasia and in the global arena. At the same time, the accession of new states as members of the organization and the expansion of the geography of the Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States shall further strengthen the international position of the organization.
1 The President received the status of Honorary Chairman of the Cooperation Council of Turkic Speaking States, KTK, 24.05.2019, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.ktk.kz/ru/newsfeed/article/2019/05/24/120064/.
2 S.A. Vassilyeva, “The EEU and the Turkic Council: Prospects for Cooperation”, Electronic scientific archive of UrFU, June 14, 2018, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: http://elar.urfu.ru/bitstream/10995/62847/1/iuro-2018-179-19.pdf.
3 R.Z. Kazhibayeva, “Turkic Council: a New Format of Cooperation”, CyberLeninka, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/v/tyurkskiy-sovet-novyy-format-sotrudnichestva.
4 CCTS, official website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 10.06.2019, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: mfa.gov.kz/ru/content-view/sstg.
5 Participants of the 1st Turkic Council Summit signed the Almaty Declaration, Тengrinews, 21th of October 2011, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://tengrinews.kz/kazakhstan_news/uchastniki-1-go-sammita-tyurkskogo-soveta-podpisali-199672/.
6 The 2nd Summit of the Council of Turkic-Speaking States opened in Bishkek, Тengrinews, August 23, 2012, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://tengrinews.kz/sng/bishkeke-otkryilsya-II-sammit-soveta-tyurkoyazyichnyih-219207/.
7 The CCTS chairmanship moved from Kyrgyzstan to Azerbaijan, Sputnik news agency, 16.08.2013, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://az.sputniknews.ru/politics/20130816/299251942.html.
8 Participation in the Fourth Summit of the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States, Akorda, June 5, 2014, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: http://www.akorda.kz/ru/events/international_community/foreign_visits/uchastie-v-chetvertom-sammite-soveta-sotrudnichestva-tyurkoyazychnyh-gosudarstv.
9 Participation in the Fifth Summit of the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States, Akorda,September 11, 2015, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: http://www.akorda.kz/ru/events/akorda_news/meetings_and_sittings/uchastie-v-pyatom-sammite-soveta-sotrudnichestva-tyurkoyazychnyh-gosudarstv.
10 Participation in the 6th Summit of the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States, Akorda,September 3, 2018, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: http://www.akorda.kz/ru/events/international_community/foreign_visits/uchastie-v-vi-sammite-soveta-sotrudnichestva-tyurkoyazychnyh-gosudarstv.
11 Political Cooperation, Turkkon, 03.05.2019, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.turkkon.org/en/isbirligi-alanlari/political-cooperation_1.
12 Summit Participants Signed a Declaration, Informational portal ZAKON.KZ, October 21,2011, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.zakon.kz/4454423-uchastniki-sammita-podpisali-deklaraciju.html.
13 Economic Cooperation,Turkkon, 12.04.2019, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.turkkon.org/en/isbirligi-alanlari/economic-cooperation_2.
14 Declaration of the First Summit of the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States, Kazinform,October 21, 2011, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.inform.kz/ru/deklaraci ya-pervogo-sammita-soveta-sotrudnichestva-tyurkoyazychnyh-gosudarstv_a2413548.
15 Turkic Business Council, Turkkon, 29.03.2019, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.turkkon.org/en/isbirligi-alanlari/economic-cooperation_2/turkic-business-council_9.
16 The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Turkic countries was established. Kazinform,May17, 2019, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.inform.kz/ru/sozdana-torgovo-promyshlennaya-
17 About TURKSOY, TURKSOY, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.turksoy.org/ru/turksoy/about.
18 History, TURKPA, 11.01.2018, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://turk-pa.org/en/content/about_turkpa/history.
19 The plenary session of the Parliamentary Assembly of Turkic-speaking countries ended withthe adoption of the Izmir Declaration. Azerbaijan State News Agency AZERTAC, 21.11.2018, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://azertag.az/ru/xeber/Plenarnoe_zasedanie_Parlamentskoi_Assamblei_tyurkoyazychnyh_stran_zavershilos_prinyatiem_Izmirskoi_Deklaracii_VIDEO-1217053.
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21 The Head of the MFA about the Turkic Academy: the Academy has transformed into an intellectual organization, Egemen Qazaqstan, August 16, 2018, retrieved August 20, 2019 from:https://ru.egemen.kz/article/194816-glava-mid-o-tyurkskoy-akademii-akademiya-preobrazovalas-v-intellektualnuyu-organ.
22 On signing of the Charter of the Turkic Culture and Heritage Foundation, Electronic government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://egov.kz/cms/ru/law/list/P1200001081.
23 Turkic Culture and Heritage Foundation, Turkkon, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.turkkon.org/en/iliskili-kurumlar/turkic-culture-and-heritage-foundation_5.
24 A meeting of the contact group of the Turkic Council was held in Baku, Anadolu Agency, 08.02.2019, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.aa.com.tr/ru.
25 Kazakhstan took part in the Third Meeting of the Turkic Council on diaspora issues, Forbes Kazakhstan, November 09, 2018, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://forbes.kz/news/2018/11/09/newsid_185957.
26 Turkey to host the Diasporas Forum of the Turkic Council’s countries, Anadolu Agency, 09.11.2018, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.aa.com.tr/.
27 The Turkic Council opened a regional center of diasporas in Kiev, TRT, 25.12.2014 ~ 15.09.2019,retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://www.trt.net.tr/russian/rossiia-i-strany-sng/2014/12/25/tiurkskii-soviet-otkryl-v-kiievie-rieghional-nyi-tsientr-diaspory-159362.
28 “Mirziyoyev: Uzbekistan is Ready to Join the CCTS,” Azattyq Radio, September 03, 2018, retrieved August 20, 2019 from: https://rus.azattyq.org/a/29468110.html.